For many years the term "animal language"biologists used in quotes, thereby emphasizing the relativity and unofficial nature of this concept. About how the animals say, it became known after the outstanding works of L. Koh, J. Huxley, V.R.Protasov, J.Lilli and other scientists.
The language of animals is a whole complex of waysexchange and transfer of information between the inhabitants of the animal world. They communicate with each other with the help of voice, body movements, smells. Let's talk about each method in more detail.
Sonic language of animals
Every animal is born from birtha certain number of sounds. These sounds are understood by other animals and react to them in one way or another. The advantage of this language is that animals can communicate with each other, not seeing each other or being at a great distance from each other. For example, birds use sound signals in impenetrable thickets. Thanks to the voice, the animals recognize each other, they learn about the danger. With the help of sounds, they issue alarm signals, drive away their enemies, inform about the food they have found, express feelings of rage, stress or pleasure.
An important feature of the language of animals is the dependencethe alphabet of sound signals from a particular situation. Most animals have in their alphabet only fifteen or twenty sound signals. With the help of them a large amount of information is transmitted. Sound alarms are present in all animal species. For example:
- roosters make fifteen different sounds;
- chicken - thirteen;
- frogs - six;
- tits - ninety;
- rooks - one hundred and twenty;
- monkeys - forty;
- horses are one hundred;
- foxes - thirty-six;
- rooks - one hundred and twenty.
Fish also make sounds, most often when they are in flocks. The scientist R.Protasov in the lexical stock of fish identified three types of carnivorous signals. It:
- a threat;
- a warning;
- battle cry.
A complex alarm system has birds. With her help, they communicate with each other. Scientists Ludwig Koch and Julian Huxley believe that the information that is transmitted through the voice of birds is so diverse that it reaches the level of a real speech. Of course, it is not a basis for comparison with a person's speech. After all, birds do not have separate words, and the same sound in each situation can sound different. The language of birds is innate, and man can always learn his language.
Beasts learn to recognize sounds from an earlyage. Unfamiliar sounds cause them danger and alertness. Most animals can distinguish and understand not only the voices of their species, but also of other species. For example, all residents of the forest are familiar with screams of jay or magpie. Deer understand the barking of a dog, and wolves can recognize the voice of a crow. So, one can conclude that sound signals are one of the ways to establish communication between the inhabitants of the animal world.
Language of postures and body movements
An important role in the exchange of information between animals is given to the language of postures and body movements. Released claws, ruffled hair, bared teeth indicate the intentions of the animal to fight.
Ritual marriage games in birds of great trash -This is a separate and complex system of postures and movements. Julian Huxley noted that ritual games between the sexes do not end after mating: the animals have a desire to stay in pairs in the future. Analyzing the behavior of animals in the natural habitat, the scientist applies anthropomorphic terms: symbol, ritual, biased behavior, joyful emotions, enthusiasm. Such a philosophical innovation became the basis of the ethology - the science of the evolutionary behavior of animals.
Great importance in this language is played by the ears and tail. For example, the dog's ears pushed back slightly or pressed to the head speak of her friendly intentions. A raised ears indicate that the dog is set up aggressively.
The language of smells
Reading smells is the main element of the languageanimals. If you watch, for example, the dog that was taken for a walk, you can see how carefully and carefully she sniffs the place with the marks that other animals have left. The dog also leaves his own marks. Thus, at the places of their stay, animals mark the border of their territory. It is known that a dog can find a person following his trail, if before that she is allowed to sniff something from his things.
In animals, leading nightlife, communication withusing the smell is most common. Predatory animals also not bad mark the places of their stay. For example, stone and marten martens can leave odorous marks on stones or sticks.
Peculiarities of communicating parrots
As you know, parrots are able to reproducehuman speech. This is possible thanks to the structure of the voice device; they have some resemblance to the human. The lower larynx of parrots can perform the same functions as the vocal cords in humans. There are also common features when pronouncing sounds.
The difference between parrots is their unique abilityin the memorization and reproduction of new words and sounds. Parrots learn to imitate human speech and try to remember it, from nature they always strive to imitate. It is sometimes difficult for some bird species to mimic a male voice, but they can easily reproduce, for example, a dog barking or a melody of a song. These birds are extraordinarily intelligent: they can memorize whole sentences. Scientists have conducted a number of experiments and found that parrots are able not only to reproduce new words, but also to understand the meaning of these words.
As the chimpanzee says
A chimpanzee is an intelligent being. New research has shown that the genetic base of these animals is ninety-eight percent identical with the genetic base of man. Because of the structure of the voice apparatus, they can not talk. Chimpanzees communicate in hands in sign language. They know a lot of gestures that mean words, and make up simple sentences. To communicate, they use facial expressions: with the help of a grimace express their feelings, emotions and desires. For example, piercing cries mean anger, laughter is joy. In 1964, naturalists Julian Huxley and Ludwig Koch established that chimpanzees can express various stages of hunger or thirst.
How dolphins communicate
In his book The Man and the Dolphin, scientist JohnLilly analyzed each category of sounds and, using the method of observation, tried to establish all the conditions under which they appear. When dolphins cross in the open sea, they exchange an unusual whistle between themselves. For each dolphin such a whistle is unique. Thanks to him, they communicate with each other, and also exchange information. At long distances, dolphins rely more on sounds than on their own vision or smell.