Biathlon can be rightfully called one of the mostpopular winter sports. In fact, this is one of the types of ski dvubory, but, anyway, biathlon is considered an independent sport. Let's look at what is biathlon, and what kinds of races there are in this sport.
History of Biathlon
Biathlon is a Greek word that can be literallytranslate as a double match or fight. For today, the word "biathlon" is more often used, which means the combination of two disciplines in one sport at once. In this case, it's skis and rifle shooting.
Biathlon is most common in countries with a harsh climate: in Russia, Sweden, Finland and Norway. But since the end of the 20th century, Germany, Austria and Ukraine are actively participating in biathlon competitions.
It is believed that biathlon emerged as a competitionmilitary patrols. Including in the Soviet Red Army in the 20s of the last century biathlon was very popular. The exact year of creating biathlon is difficult to single out, but the date of the first competitions in this sport is known. It is believed that for the first time the official competitions in biathlon took place in the winter of 1767 in Norway. It was at this time that the basic rules of biathlon were announced, which have changed a lot today. So, initially, the winners were those skiers who, after skiing down the steep ski slope, could hit the target with a gun. Only the two best athletes were awarded. But biathlon began to develop actively only from the middle of the 20th century, after the end of the Great Patriotic War.
To date, the biathlon is being developed by the International Biathlon Union (IBU), and in Russia - the Russian Biathlon Union, established in 1992. Also biathlon is included in the program of winter sports.
If fans of this sport ask what isbiathlon, then for sure, most of them will start talking about the race for skiing, accompanied by a stop at the shooting range. And this, really true.
Athletes start at the command of the judge. In some disciplines, participants start the race simultaneously, in others - in a certain order. After passing a certain distance, which includes both a straight ski track and downhill slopes, the race participant approaches the firing line, where he has to hit 5 targets. If the athlete misses, then he runs to the penalty circle, receives a penalty time, or should use additional cartridges. All these nuances depend on the type of race. During the race itself, participants are not allowed to cut, let go of the penalty circles and exert any physical influence on the rivals. In addition, you can not shoot at someone else's targets. The winner of the biathlon race is the participant who showed the best time, taking into account the misses on the firing position.
Kinds of biathlon races
When answering the question, what is biathlon, it is important to consider the types of races, because the mechanics of competitions depend entirely on them.
- Sprint. This is the very first stage in any biathlon competitions. It is he who determines the position and bonuses for all other disciplines. In this discipline, men run 10 km, and women 7.5. Throughout the race, the participants have to overcome two shooting ranges - one standing, the other lying down. If the biathlete receives penalty points, then he goes to the penalty circle, the length of 150 m. In this race, participants run by turns, so the last athletes will already know the results of the first.
- Pursuit. In this kind of biathlon race, participants start in this order, as they finished the sprint. So, the winner starts the race first, the others start with a delay equal to the time that they lost to him. The pursuit race is 12.5 km for men and 10 km for women, on which they have to pass 4 shooting ranges - 2 in the supine position and 2 in the standing position.
- Mass start. In this type of race, all participants start simultaneously. It is noteworthy that in the mass start-up take only 30 of the best athletes in the rating for the current year. The distance in this kind of race is 15 km for men and 12.5 for women. And for every miss the athlete goes to the penalty circle.
- Individual race. This is the biggest kind of race in biathlon. The distance is 20 km for men and 15 for women, with 4 shooting ranges. It is significant that for every miss, an athlete gets 1 penalty minute.
- Relay race. Each country exhibits for this race the four best athletes. Each of them passes its stage at 7, 5 km and 2 firing lines. It is important that if an athlete makes mistakes, he can use additional cartridges (3 pieces) that need to be charged manually. The winner is the country that showed the best team time.
Types of Biathlon
In addition to the classic form of this biathlon, in which athletes are equipped with skis, ski poles and a pneumatic gun, there are also alternative types of this sport:
- Archeri-biathlon - a ski race, combined with archery;
- Biathlon on stegostupah - a race on snowshoes and shooting from a rifle;
- Hunting biathlon - a race on hunting skis and shooting from a hunting rifle;
- Summer biathlon - running or a race on roller skis and shooting from a rifle.
I hope you now know what biathlon is,where did this sport come from, and what kinds of biathlon are there. Biathlon race is a very exciting activity, that's why today more and more fans of this sport appear in the world.